Essential Oil Reference


Historical : The oil was first sold in the city of Bergamot in Lombardy, Italy. Historically the oil has been used for fever and worms.
Aromatherapy Properties : Used especially for mouth, skin, respiratory and urinary tract infections. Bergamot essential oil is useful for anxiety, depression, and stress relaxed conditions, having a refreshing and uplifting quality.

Carrot Seed

Historical : Used in ancient Greece for medicinal properties. Was used in France during the 1600's as a remedy for carminative troubles and has grown in popularity since.
Aromatherapy Properties : Improves complexion due to strengthening effect on red blood cells, adding tone and elasticity. Oil derived from the seed head, rich in vitamins A, B, C, D and E. It is useful as a skin rejuvenator and is recommended for dry and ageing skin types. Contains skin protection and conditioning benefits derived from the high quantities of carotenoids.


Historical :Cedarwood oil was possibly the first essential oil to be extracted from a plant and was used by the Egyptians in the mummification process, they also valued it highly as an ingredient for cosmetics and impregnated papyrus leaves with it to protect them from insects.
Aromatherapy Properties : Astringent. Recommended for oily skin or acne. Regulating and balancing. Used for nervous tension, anxiety, insomnia, stress, poor circulation, arthritis, rheumatism, respiratory congestion, enhance concentration and zest for life.


Historical : Chamomile has been used in Europe for over 2000 years. In 1656, John Parkinson wrote : 'Chamomile is put to diverse and sundry uses, both for pleasure and profit, both for the sick and the sound, in bathing to comfort and strengthen the sound and to ease pains in the diseased'. Egyptian priests dedicated the plant to Ra, their sun god. India's Ayurvedic physicians used it for digestive upsets, cramps and fever.
Aromatherapy Properties : Excellent for skin care - allergies, eczema, insect bites, wounds. Muscular pain, neuralgia, rheumatism, sprains and burns. Headaches, insomnia, migraine, stress - well known for calming effect on nervous system.


Historical : Cinnamon has long been traded as a valuable spice. In Eastern medicine it is used to treat flu, digestive and menstrual problems as well as a general stimulant.
Aromatherapy Properties : Circulation, rheumatism, digestion, spasms, colds, flu. Some use in stress relief. Makes a very warming massage blend - good for rheumatism

Clary Sage

Historical : The word clary comes from 'clear-eye' for a plant from which the seeds were used to heal eye problems and was highly esteemed in the Middle Ages. In Germany it is used in the production of some wines and vermouths and is known as Muscatel sage.
Aromatherapy Properties : Skin care and stress-related conditions including high blood pressure, depression and anxiety. Calms fevers. Good for female system. Good for throat and respiratory infections

Clove Bud

Historical : One of the most potent antiseptic, Europeans doctors once breathed through clove-filled leather beaks to ward off the plague. Modern dental preparations contain clove essential oil, or its main constituent, eugenol, to numb toothache and teething pain and to stop infection.
Aromatherapy Properties : Researchers found that sniffing the spicy aroma reduces drowsiness, irritability, and headaches, assists memory recall , and increases circulation. This powerful essential oil also has the ability to abate depression, relieve indigestion, and contribute to sexual stimulations. Skin care and stress-related conditions including high blood pressure, depression and anxiety. Calms fevers. Good for female system. Good for throat and respiratory infections

Eucalyptus Blue Gum

Historical : Eucalyptus globulus has for a long time been known as a remedy for intermittent fever among the natives of the countries of its origin. Aside from its alleged utility in intermittents, this agent has had other virtues attributed to it
Aromatherapy Properties : Eucalyptus Blue Gum essential oil is employed in the preparation of liniments, inhalants, cough syrups and ointments. It is also used as a fragrance component in soaps, and toiletries

Eucalyptus Lemon

Historical : The eucalyptus tree was known as the Fever Tree as the strong odors were supposed to improve the well-being of people living in swampy areas. In Sicily, eucalyptus trees were planted to combat malaria.
Aromatherapy Properties : Powerful antiseptic and healing agent. Renowned for treatment of respiratory complaints - often used in inhalants. Can relieve fever and skin irritations. Head-clearing, uplifting, refreshing. Good insect repellent - esp. cockroaches and silverfish.

Geranium, Rose

Historical : It was used by the ancients as a remedy for wounds and tumors. The British plant Geranium robertianum and the American cranesbill G. maculatum are the most widely used types in herbal medicine today.
Aromatherapy Properties : Geranium oil is distilled from the leaves of the plant. It has a leafy rose scent. Geranium has been long revered for its fragrance. Some traditional uses: reducing stress and tension, easing pain, balancing emotions and hormones, PMS, relieve fatigue and nervous exhaustion, to lift melancholy, lessen fluid retention, repel insects. Emotional profile: to aid with acute fear, rigidity, abuse, lack of self-esteem, discontentment, heartache.


Historical : Eastern medicine has used ginger for a very long time. It was thought it promoted strength and a long life. The women of Senegal weave ginger root into belts to arouse their husbands ! Fresh ginger is still used in China to treat toothache, diarrhea, excess mucus, rheumatism and dysentery. In the West it is well known as a digestive aid - the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia lists it for flatulent intestinal colic. It is also a well known cure for travel sickness.
Aromatherapy Properties : muscular problems, arthritis, rheumatism, poor circulation, coughs, sore throat, nausea, travel sickness, colds, flu. Also noted for its decongesting properties.


Historical :Used to lift melancholy, relieve muscle fatigue, as an astringent for oily skin, to refresh and energize the body, stimulate detoxification and as an airborne disinfectant
Aromatherapy Properties :Grapefruit oil is cold pressed from the peel of the grapefruit. It has a fresh, sweet, citrus scent. Grapefruit essential oil is used for self-doubt and criticism, dependency, frustration and grief.


Historical : Lavender has a long tradition as a folk remedy. It was used for stomach complaints, insect repellants and as a scent for linen. The Romans used lavender in preparation for childbirth. Floors strewn with lavender were thought to ward off the plague.
Aromatherapy Properties : The most universal of all essential oils. Many uses including skin care, circulation, muscles, joints, digestive, immune system. Sheets washed in lavender are thought to promote sleep.


Historical : Used in traditional Indian medicine for infectious illness and fever. Used as an insect repellent and deodorizer, for athlete's foot, as a tissue toner, to relieve muscular pain (sports-muscle pain), increase circulation, for headaches, for nervous exhaustion and other stress related problems.
Aromatherapy Properties : It has a powerful, lemon-grass aroma. There has been recent research in India which shows that lemongrass acts as sedative on the central nervous system. Some traditional uses: as an insect repellent and deodorizer, for athlete's foot, as a tissue toner, to relieve muscular pain (sports-muscle pain), increase circulation, for headaches, for nervous exhaustion and other stress related problems. Use with care and avoid in pregnancy.

Orange, Sweet

Historical : Orange oil is cold pressed from the orange peel. It has a fruity, sweet scent. Orange trees were once rare and native only to China and India. Some traditional uses: to brighten mood, calm and reduce stress, as an environmental disinfectant.
Aromatherapy Properties : Clears the head, increases mental alertness, improves memory; encouraging, grounding, strengthening, warming; for depression, nervous exhaustion, performance stress, and headaches.


Historical : The oil has been used in the East for a long time to scent clothes and linen. It was believed to prevent the spread of disease. Also used in China, Japan and Malaysia to treat colds, headaches, nausea, diarrhea and abdominal pain.
Aromatherapy Properties : Good antiseptic, e.g.. minor burns and cracked skin. Calming action. Aphrodisiac.


Historical : Peppermint oil is distilled from the leaves and flowering tops of the plant. It has a sweet, mint aroma. Herbalists in ancient Greece and Rome used peppermint for nearly every ailment. Some traditional uses: for energy, and brighter mood, reducing pain, to help breathing, improve mental clarity and memory. Peppermint may irritate sensitive skin and should be avoided during pregnancy. Emotional profile: for shock, overwork, apathy, helplessness.
Aromatherapy Properties : Peppermint may irritate sensitive skin and should be avoided during pregnancy as it can bring on uterine contractions. However it has been found to be an aid in early stages of labour. Emotional profile: for shock, overwork, apathy, helplessness.


Historical :Rosemary oil is distilled from the flowering tops of the herb. It has a camphor like aroma. Ancient Greeks and Romans gave rosemary sacred status for its many beneficial uses.
Aromatherapy Properties : Rosemary should be avoided if you are pregnant, if you have epilepsy or high blood pressure. Rosemary is used to energize, for muscle pains, cramps or sprains, brighten mood, for improving mental clarity and memory, easing pain, to relieve headaches, disinfecting.


Historical :It is extensively felled in the South American rainforest but now legislation requires distilleries to plant a new tree for each tree cut down.
Aromatherapy Properties : Although Rosewood essential oil is not very powerful, it has a place in aromatherapy and could help with the respiratory system, with sexual problems, with stress-related conditions and for skin care.


Historical :The ancient Greeks used it to scent their bath water. It had a reputation for curing sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea and during the medieval times, Spearmint was used to heal sore gums and also to whiten teeth.
Aromatherapy Properties : Spearmint oil can be effective for the digestive system, for the respiratory tract, for a tired mind and for skin problems. The therapeutic properties of Spearmint oil are: local anesthetic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, decongestant, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant and restorative.


Historical : Mandarin is native to southern China and the Far East and was brought to Europe in 1805 and to the USA forty years later, where it was renamed the tangerine.
Aromatherapy Properties :calming, cheering, relaxing, soothing, stress, uplifting. Added to Massage Oil, tangerine helps relax cramped muscles. The essential oil is good remedy for premenstrual syndrome, and may be beneficial in treating stomach, liver, and gallbladder problems. Avoid in pregnancy.

Tea Tree

Historical : Used extensively by aborigines before Captain Cook used the name tea tree to refer to the leaves of a Leptospermum ( similar genus to Melaleuca ) from which he brewed a tea drink. It was referred to as spicy and refreshing. There are over three hundred varieties of tea tree throughout Australia, but only one has truly outstanding medicinal properties - Melaleuca Alternifolia. The key properties of this variety are a high terpinene-4-ol component and a low cineol component ( which is a skin irritant ). Much research has been done into the properties of tea tree, perhaps more than any other essential oil. It is now widely recognized by the scientific community as a powerful tool against a variety of infectious organisms. Mr. W. R. Penfold in 1930 found it to be 11 to 13 times stronger than carbolic ( carbolic acid or phenol, C6-H5-OH ) as a germicide.
Aromatherapy Properties : Strong antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, fungicidal properties. Used for a variety of skin complaints e.g.. athlete's foot, boils, herpes, ulcers, psoriasis, warts.

Ylang Ylang

Historical : Used for hair care and skin complaints. Also to fight fever and infections. In Victorian times, the oil was used in Macassar oil - a hair treatment. In Indonesia, the flowers are spread on the beds of newly married couples.
Aromatherapy Properties : Aphrodisiac properties due to intense flowery scent. Anti-depressant. Euphoric qualities. Has a balancing effect on blood pressure and distressed breathing patterns.

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